different designs, placement of equipment
and supplies and providers will be simulated using a human modeling tool. The
purpose of these simulation experiments
is to validate the requirements.
With the experimental results, a final set
of design requirements will be identified.
The final set of requirements and the validated crash safety standards from NIOSH
will be input to the next open comment
period for NFPA 1917, which is tentatively
scheduled for spring. JEMS
Jennifer Marshall is the homeland security program manager with the Law Enforcement Standards Office of the
National Institute of Standards and Technology and manages the standards development efforts that support DHS
and first responders. She has more than 10 years of experience in technology and standards development for the
homeland security community— including EMS, fire service and law enforcement. She can be contacted at email@example.com.
Y. Tina Lee is a computer scientist with the Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and
Technology. She has participated in research and authored
more than 50 technical papers relating to homeland security modeling and simulation and manufacturing systems
integration. She’s the co-editor of the Core Manufacturing
Simulation Data Standard (SISO-STD-008-2010). She can be
contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
7. British Standards Institute. (June 29, 2007). BS EN
1789:2007, Medical Vehicles and their equipment: Road
ambulances. European Committee for Standardization
(CEN), Management Centre: rue Stassart, 36 B-1050
8. Dadfarnia M, Lee YT & Kibira D. A Bibliography of
Ambulance Patient Compartments and Related Issues,
NISTIR 7835. National Institute of Standards and
Technology: Gaithersburg, Md., 2011.
9. Kibira D, Lee Y T & Dadfarnia M. “Modeling for
Optimal Ambulance Patient Compartment
Layout,” Proceedings of the 2012 Spring Simulation
Multiconference: Orlando, March 26–29, 2012.
www.jems.com oc ToBeR 2012 JEMS 59 choose 38 at www.jems.com/rs
1. Ballam E. (Feb. 9, 2011). Ambulance Crash Roundup. In
EMS World. Retrieved from www.emsworld.com/
2. National Fire Protection Association. (2012). NFPA
1917: Standard for automotive ambulances. In
National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved from
3. U.S. General Services Administration (2007). Federal
Specification for the Star-of-Life Ambulance, KKK-A-
1822F. In FedBizOpps. www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportu
4. ASTM International. Standard Guide for Training
Emergency Medical Services Ambulance Operations.
5. Emergency Health Services, Health Policy and Service
Standards Development Branch. (2010). Ambulance
Vehicle Standards Code January 2010. In Government
of Alberta. Retrieved from www.health.alberta.ca/
6. Standards Australia, Standards New Zealand.
1999. Australian/New Zealand Standard:
Ambulance Restraint Systems, AS/NZS 4535:1999.