own; the possibilities for incorporating EMS
safety goals as learning objectives for simulation activities are endless! JEMS
• Bigham BL, Buick JE, Brooks SC, et al. Patient safety in emergency medical services: A systematic review of the literature.
Prehosp Emerg Care. 2012; 16( 1): 20–35.
• EMS Forward. (2016.) Center for Patient Safety. Retrieved Oct.
28, 2017, from www.centerforpatientsafety.org/emsforward.
Jennifer McCarthy, MAS, NRP, MICP, CHSE,
is a founding member, associate professor
and director of the Paramedic Science Pro-
gram at Bergen Community College in Lynd-
hurst, N. J. She’s a national presenter at both
EMS and medical simulation conferences and has a passion
about the use of medical simulation to advance learning within
the EMS profession. Contact her at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Amar P. Patel, DHSc, MS, NRP, is the director of the Center for Innovative Learning at
WakeMed Health and Hospitals. He has more
than 20 years of experience in the fire and
EMS services, disaster medicine, and critical
care transport as a firefighter, paramedic, researcher and
educator. Contact him at email@example.com.
Andrew E. Spain, MA, NCEE, EMT-P, is the
director of accreditation and certification for
the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. He’s
been a paramedic for more than 20 years
and is a nationally certified EMS educator.
Contact him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Timothy Whitaker, BS, CHSE, CHSOS, EMT-P,
is a clinical educator at CAE Healthcare. He’s an
experienced simulation educator credentialed
by the Society for Simulation in Healthcare as
a Certified Healthcare Simulation Educator
Learn more from Jennifer McCarthy,
Amar Patel, Andrew Spain and Timothy
Whitaker in the full-day EMS Today preconference workshop, “Stimulating Simulation: A deep dive
into EMS best practice of simulation techniques,” held at the
new, ultra-modern MEDIC Simulation Center in Charlotte,
N. C., on Feb. 20, 2018. Visit EMS Today.com for more details
and to register.
Table 1: Simulation activities to improve patient safety
Patient safety culture Normalization of deviance in clinical practice
Critical head trauma patient with clenched
jaw requiring RSI or pharmaceuticals to
manage the airway
SBAR (situation, background, assessment and
recommendations) utilized in the patient
handoff within EMS
Any level EMS crew transferring care to
another (e.g., BLS crew handing off care to an
Airway management Effectiveness of basic airway maneuvers Clenched jaw, polypharmacy overdose patient
Bariatric patients Compliance requesting additional resources on a bariatric patient Simulation scenario in a private residence with a bariatric patient
Patient safety culture Communication between EMS crew members
Scripted wrong procedure/skill or
inappropriate skills/procedure during a
Patient handoff SBAR utilized in the patient handoff in interprofessional education cases Any level EMS crew handing off care to another healthcare provider (e.g., EMS crew handing off care to a nurse at the ED)
Airway management Recognition of displaced airway Patient with previously established airway that shows decline in vital signs
Bariatric patients Patient communication techniques during movement Simulation scenario in a private residence with a bariatric patient