embedded in high-fidelity simulation activities involving the full care
of a patient in complex situations that we can have the ability to identify what occurs under higher cognitive loads. These complex activities must be run in real-time and in their entirety to ensure accuracy in
The design and delivery of simulation activities is essentially the same for
pediatric patients as it is for adults, with the differences being in presenting
pediatric-specific care elements. Our activity designs of patient progression must mimic real-life evolution of vital signs and other symptoms.
This can be difficult for activities using SPs. There are legal considerations and risks when using children in a medical simulation environment, and children can be difficult to train to behave to the level of
Simulation can still be used to support high-quality pediatric care.
Do the participants use appropriate pediatric resources and demonstrate
changes in thinking? Use of memory aid devices promotes safety and
should be used in simulation activities involving pediatric age patients.
Your assessments of performance should include pediatric-specific elements to ensure closing the age gap in patient care.
Next month we’ll address the final three patient safety topics, each related
to a common foundation of professional behaviors. JEMS
1. EMS Forward. (2016.) Center for Patient Safety. Retrieved Dec. 27, 2017, from
2. Zun L. Care of psychiatric patients: The challenge to emergency physicians. West J Emerg
Med. 2016; 17( 2):173–176.
3. Owens T, Gliva-McConvey G. (2015): Standardized patients. In Palaganas J, Maxworthy J,
Epps C, et al. (Eds.), Defining excellence in simulation programs. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins:
Baltimore, pp. 199–212, 2015.
4. Barata IA, Benjaimin LS, Mace SE, et al. Pediatric patient safety in the prehospital/emergency
department setting. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007; 23( 6):412–418.
Jennifer McCarthy, MAS, NRP, MICP, CHSE, is a founding member, associate
professor and director of the Paramedic Science Program at Bergen Community College in Lyndhurst, N.J. She’s a presenter at both EMS and medical
simulation conferences and has a passion about the use of medical simulation
to advance learning within EMS. Contact her at email@example.com.
Amar P. Patel, DHSc, MS, NRP, is the director of the Center for Innovative
Learning at WakeMed Health and Hospitals. He has more than 20 years of
experience in the fire and EMS services, disaster medicine, and critical care
transport as a firefighter, paramedic, researcher and educator. Contact him
at apatel@ wakemed.org.
Andrew E. Spain, MA, NCEE, EMT-P, is the director of accreditation and certification for the Society for Simulation in Healthcare. He’s been a paramedic
for more than 20 years and is a nationally certified EMS educator. Contact
him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Timothy Whitaker, BS, CHSE, CHSOS, EMT-P, is a clinical educator at CAE
Healthcare. He’s an experienced simulation educator credentialed by the
Society for Simulation in Healthcare as both a Certified Healthcare Simulation
Educator (CHSE) and a Certified Healthcare Simulation Operations Specialist
(CHSOS). Contact him at email@example.com.